The Sun, a yellow dwarf, as classified as a yellow dwarf, is currently ~4,6 Billion years old. It was born as all the stars, from a dense location of atoms and gases, known as nebulas.
Classified on size, our Sun has a medium size, knowing about all the dwarf stars and the supergiant stars that are out there.
But let’s get to our topic…
What will happen to the Sun in the next billion years?
If this is what you expected, no, the Sun will not collapse into a black hole. As you read before, the Sun is not very big, and only stars very big compared to the Sun will get into a black hole at the end of their life! So sorry for disapointing you.
The Sun will continue fusing hydrogen for the next 5 Billion years, until it will fuse helium. At that moment, the sun will produce lots of energy, expanding until it will transform in a giant red star, as clasification.
At this stage, the Sun will consume Mercury, Venus, and probalbly also Earth. The bigger size will also change the habbitable zone of the solar system.
This will make some changes in the solar system.
Of course, Mars, Jupiter and all the other planets will be hotter than they are now. That could mean, that these planets could be habitable.
But Mars will be hit by enormous radiation, as it is also these days, and Jupiter has a very big G-force, which people can’t handle and is not a terestrial planet. This problem is existent to all the other gas giants in our solar system.
But what about the moons of the gas giants?
We did a PowerPoint presentation about the water worlds in the solar system. Here is a link.
We said there, that some moons of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus and some dwarf planets could have liquid water such as: Ceres, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Enceladus, Titan, Mimas, Triton and Pluto. All these moons and dwarf planets will be hot enough to melt the ice crust on each celestial body. We could easily live on these moons, with just an oxygen tank.
Bigger mass and size equals bigger gravitational pull, so the Sun will than attract other bodies, such as asteroids or comets into orbit, that could eventually form new planets!
A new stage of a star means a new stage of a solar system!
The Sun will not remain a red giant forever. It will remain a red giant for approximately 1 Billion years, than, it will shrink into a White Dwarf, all the solar system, with all the planets, cooling up.
All stars have a life cycle, that will once end, after millions or bilions of years…
Image source: space . Com